LLandDev (Land, Landscape and Development) is one of the courses (‘Parcours’ in the LMD system) offered in Master 2 within the domain of Agronomic and environmental Engineering Sciences (‘School of Agronomy’), formerly called ‘Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Agronomiques’ (ESSA, The Course is part of the Forestry and Environment Department (‘Mention’ in the LMD system, formerly ESSA-Forêts) ( and focuses on sustainable land and natural resources management (goods and ecosystem services) from their uses (agricultural areas, pastures, open spaces, urban spaces, ...), their modifications and their degradation over time and space (changes, conversions of landscapes), their social and economic impacts up to their restoration processes ( stability and durability).

In addition to the academic program provided by Lecturers and Researchers, LLandDev is carrying out various applied research activities focused on Sustainable Land Management through its Laboratory of the same name.


""Land is the terrestrial productive biological system that includes soil, vegetation, other biota, and the ecological and hydrological processes that operate within the system" (UNCCD, 1994). Land is a limited resource that provides multiple benefits to human-being. It supports a range of goods and services by mitigating climate change, regulating water supply, and sustaining food production.Its degradation, considered as the erosion process from human activities, has significant effect on human well-being. Costs of land degradation affect all social classes and the economic impact from ecosystem services’ loss is continuously increasing. Land ownership changes the livelihoods of people who have traditionally lived on it without/ with formal or legal tenure. Moreover, sustainable land management have to include actions in synergy with other national and international policies on food security, on climate, on biodiversity, on forests, …, and contribute to national and local development objectives. Land tenure must be clearly identified, mapped, clarified, and supported by land administration institutions.Sustainable land management involves more productive and resilient agriculture. It requires a major change in land management to ensure more efficient use of resources. It includes a wide range of approaches, practices, and methods, including recovery, restoration, and rehabilitation processes of degraded lands.

  • Landscape

    Landscape is defined as a level of organization of ecological systems and can be assimilated to the different levels of watersheds. It is essentially characterized by its heterogeneity and by its dynamics bringing together various land uses, ecosystem goods and services (agriculture, forestry activities, soil protection, water supply and distribution, biodiversity conservation, pastures, etc.).Landscape degradation results from a mismatch between an implicit model, that serves as reference and measurement unit, and the modified landscape or is being modified. Degraded landscapes are those to which people no longer attribute positive values and therefore have no (or very limited) role. Therefore, they most often require more specific management scheme at different scales (regional, national, subnational, local).The multifunctional landscape approach is therefore to be preferred in order to balance the needs of the population at landscape scale while integrating its specificity on the different types of land use, land demand, and land tenure, so that goods and services are sustainably produced. Territorial planning contributes to identify the suitable land use organization to meet people's needs while preserving soil, water, and biodiversity for future generations.


"“Human development is a process of enlarging people’s choices. Expanding people's choices becomes a reality through the development of human capabilities and of fundamental human functioning modes” (UNDP, 2010).Land degradation is the decline in the economic value of land and terrestrial ecosystem services resulting from human activities or form changing biophysical conditions.The capacities of the population to choose, even limited, allow them to develop productive and innovative strategies, which in turn serve to reveal their capacities in relation to supply. Different practices and methods are possible to mitigate land degradation, including soil resource management (crop rotation systems, rangeland or forest management, land use planning), sustainable agricultural practices aiming to increase long-term productivity, such as soil and water conservation, soil quality management, improved land tenure, and plowing techniques.Understanding the value of land for more sustainable management will help to correct the difference between the financial and economic values of land.Sustainable land management measures and more diversified value-added income are thus necessary to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.Development cannot be sustained without considering population, as beneficiaries as well as agents, as individuals as well as collectively, at the central core of all activities; investments are made for both citizens and institutions; and that public authorities are mindful of their people as well as accountable to them for their actions.

Key projects

  • Assessment of fire-related land loss and runoff. Sustainable land management practices in the Boeny Region and its implications for landscape management policy frameworks.
  • Contextual analysis of access strategies, rights to land and natural resources in and around the periphery of Ankarafantsika National Park
  • Capacity building for fire management in Madagascar at national and regional levels.
  • Capacity building in the economics of land degradation: the impact of fire on farming systems.
Agricultural fuelbreaks created - 60km+
Supported households - 470+
Supported partner Institutions - 12+
Developed tools - 8+

Agroecology with ProSol

“ProSol” or Soil Protection and Rehabilitation to Improve Food Security is a project commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). The project aims to implement large-scale agroecological approaches for sustainable, climate-smart soil protection and rehabilitation. A multi-donor Action “ProSilience” jointly co- financed by the European Union (EU) and the BMZ integrates the global ProSol program in 2021, implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GIZ) in seven countries including Benin, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Tunisia and India. The ProSilience objective is to strengthen the agroecological transition towards sustainable agri-food systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (including Madagascar). To this end, in Madagascar, the ProSol project is under the supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock (MINAE) and works in close collaboration with the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development (MEDD) and intervenes in two regions : Boeny (4 Districts / 13 Municipalities) and Androy (2 Districts / 10 Municipalities).

To make a sustainable impact, ProSol provides knowledge products in a variety of formats, including booklets, posters, and videos. In this section, ProSol shares their experience through these videos: making liquid compost and vermicompost, growing pigeon pea and cowpea in alleyways, growing vegetables with compost, rainfed rice with compost, combining cereals and legumes, basket compost, planting cajanus, growing pure mucuna... to develop strategies for good agroecological practices in Madagascar.

Additional illustrations